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allopurinol

👤by MedicineNet.com 0 comments 🕔Wednesday, October 8th, 2014

DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Allopurinol is used for treating gout caused by excessive levels of uric acid in the blood (hyperuricemia). It is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and is similar to febuxostat (Uloric). Uric acid is a by product from the breakdown of certain proteins (purines) in the body by enzymes called xanthine oxidases. Hyperuricemia occurs when the body produces more uric acid than it can eliminate. The uric acid forms crystals in joints (gouty arthritis) and tissues, causing inflammation and pain. Elevated blood uric acid levels also can cause kidney disease and kidney stones. Allopurinol prevents the production of uric acid by blocking the activity of the enzymes that converts purines to uric acid. Uric acid levels usually begin to fall within 2-3 days of starting treatment and return to their original levels within 7-10 days after allopurinol is stopped. It may take several months of therapy before attacks of gout are controlled. The FDA approved allopurinol in August 1966.

PRESCRIPTION: Yes

GENERIC AVAILABLE: Yes

PREPARATIONS: Tablets: 100, 300 mg; Powder for injection: 500 mg

STORAGE: Tablets should be stored at room temperature between 15 C to 25 C (59 F to 77 F) and in a moisture proof, light- resistant container. Powder should be stored from 20 C to 25 C (68 F to 77 F) and not refrigerated.

PRESCRIBED FOR: Allopurinol is used for preventing and/or treating acute attacks of gout, erosive destructive gouty joint disease, uric acid deposits in tissues (tophi), gouty kidney disease, and uric acid stones. Allopurinol also is used to prevent elevation of blood uric acid in patients undergoing chemotherapy for the treatment of certain cancers and in patients with recurrent calcium kidney stones and elevated uric acid levels.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 10/8/2014

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Pharmacy Author:

Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD

Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD

Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.

Medical and Pharmacy Editor:

Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD

Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD

Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.

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